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EDITORIAL NOTE

This debate solely admits technical comments expressed in due scientific language without any record of their originators. Comments may be edited for their reduction to essential points. We discourage the submission of arrogant or offensive comments. The editorial rules of this Dialogue are those adopted by Wikipedia.

The Editorial Team

November 26, 2017

Open Debate

Geometric and experimental evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe, the need for antimatter galaxies and the new era in cosmology

EDITORIAL NOTE: In view of a growing rejection in the scientific community of the conjecture of the expansion of the universe, the ensuing serious problems of scientific ethics and accountability protracted for about one century, and the apparent misuse of hundred of millions of dollars of taxpayers money. In Part I of this Debate we shall first present the list of inconsistencies for each of the seven conjectures of 20th century cosmology, namely:

Conjecture I: the expansion of the universe.

Conjecture II: the acceleration of the expansion.

Conjecture III: the big bang.

Conjecture IV: the expansion of space itself.

Conjecture V: the cosmological inflation.

Conjecture VI: the dark matter.

Conjecture VII: the dark energies.

Each conjecture proffered in support of the preceding failing conjecture, and all conjectures aimed at the maintaining of Einstein's special relativity in the large scale structure of the universe, all conjecture being studiously conceived not to be experimentally verifiable on Earth.

In Part II of this debate we shall present the diversified experimental evidence acquired with experiments Earth on the lack of expansion of the universe and the consequential lack of physical value of the subsequent six conjecture of the series. In Part III we shall then present the main lines of the new renaissance in cosmology.

The conceptual, geometric and experimental evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe presented in this debate have been derived, at times copied 'at litteram,' from the fifty year long studies by Prof. R. M. Santilli, see the recent general review [1,18-44], the specific works quoted in the references, and the Dr. R.M. Santilli Curriculum for complete listing. Independent contributions are available in the complete list of papers, interviews and PRWeb Releases [2].

We invite orthodox physicists to present their dismissal in the apposing window available in each section that assures anonymity of the author. We invite, in particular, orthodox physicists in disproving problems of scientific ethics and accountability claimed as being caused by their continued addition of unverifiable conjectures for the evident intent of maintaining the validity of Einstein special relativity in the large scale structure of the universe, rather than admitting its inapplicability as established by a rather vast number of experimental evidence acquired on Earth.

PART I:
GEOMETRIC EVIDENCE ON THE LACK OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE

I.1. The Hubble law.

In 1927, the American astrophysicist Edwin Hubble [3] discovered that the frequency of light reaching Earth from far away galaxies decreases in a way essentially proportional to the distance, an effect known as the cosmological redshift, resulting in the expression known as the Hubble law

z = λobservedemitted - 1 = H d,    (1)

where: z is the cosmological redshift; λobserved is the wavelength of light measured on Earth; λemitted is the wavelength emitted by the galaxy; H is the Hubble constant; d is the distance of the considered galaxy from Earth; and the speed of light c is assumed to be 1, c = 1, otherwise law (1) would read z = H' d, where H' = H/c is also a constant. Following ninety years of astrophysical measurements. Hubble's law (1) is nowadays an experimental reality beyond any possible or otherwise conceivable doubt.

A serious contribution to this debate requires the admission that the cosmological redshift according to Hubble's law (1) is the SOLE experimentally measured quantity in contemporary cosmology.

More particularly, the sole measured quantity is the observed wavelength of galactic light λobserved (or equivalently, its corresponding frequency), from which the cosmological redshift z is uniquely and unambiguously derived via law (1) via known values of the emitted wavelength of galactic light. The cosmological redshift therefore characterized by the decrease (increase) of the wavelength (frequency) of galactic light.

The totality of the numerous additional "experimental values" present in the 20th century cosmology, such as the chained speed of recession of galaxies, ARE NOT measured, but are DERIVED from Hubble's law (1) via one or more experimentally unverified CONJECTURES. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit historical contributions on Hubble's original formulation of his law (1).



I.2. The conjecture of the expansion of the universe.

The first interpretation of Hubble's law (1) (among others reviewed in Part II) is that the cosmological redshift is due to the motion of galaxies away from us according to the Doppler effect, which is a basic axiom of Einstein special relativity [4], thus resulting in the conjecture that the universe is expanding. A simple use of special relativity implies that the cosmological redshift is proportional (in first approximation) to the speed v of the considered galaxy, resulting in the conjecture

z = H'd ≈ v/c,    (2)

or Hd.c = v/c, resulting in the assumption v = Hd.

Figure I.1: Picture of a sculpture in the hall of the Vinoy Renaissance Hotel in St. Petersburg, Florida, illustrating the expansion of the universe according to conjecture (3), thus showing Earth at the center of the universe and galaxies moving away from Earth in all is "radial" directions.

Conjecture (2) remained dormant for decades until the Hiroshima explosion of August 1945 propelled Albert Einstein to a justly historical fame due to the confirmation by said explosion of his celebrated law E = mc2. At that point, the physicists of the Manhattan project [5] and their academic associates initiated a world wide promotion of the conjecture on the expansion of the universe for the unspoken, yet evident intent of maintaining the validity of Einstein's special relativity in the larger scale structure of the universe, which promotion has essentially been continued on a world wide basis to this day. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions on the early assumptions of the expansion of the universe.



I.3. The return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe

As it is well known to serious historians, Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble, Fred Hoyle, Fritz Zwicky, Enrico Fermi, Louis de Broglie, and other famous scientists died without accepting the conjecture of the expansion of the universe because, as a necessary condition to verify Hubble's law (1), the speed v of receding galaxies must be the same for all galaxies at the same distance d from Earth in all radial directions from Earth, thus implying the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe. Such a consequence persists under all six additional cosmological conjectures, such as that of the expansion of space itself as shown below.

As anybody can see via simple internet searches on the Hubble law (see, e.g., Wikipedia [6] and scientific papers quoted therein), the return to the Middle Ages is avoided in the 20th century cosmology via the studious misrepresentation of Hubble's law (1) in the MEASURED WAVELENGTHS of galactic light (1) into the purely conjectural assumption on the SPEED of galaxies WITHOUT the crucial dependence on the RADIAL DISTANCE d of the galaxies from Earth of law (2). ZeusSon.

= z ≈ v/c.    (3)

In other words, Earth at the center of the universe, which is evident in expression (2) is avoided in assumption (3) via the studious suppression of the dependence on the radial distance d. Once law (1) is twisted into law (3), the historical credibility of Hubble's law is abused to claim that the assumed galactic speeds v are "measured," resulting in an obscurantism of historical proportions, with ensuing serious problems of scientific ethics and accountability and the apparent misuse of hundreds of millions of taxpayers money which is continuing to this day in a totally unchecked way.


Figure I.2: We reproduce a picture from Wikipedia [7] showing the funnel-shaped geometry of the expanding universe in which the symmetry axis represents the value of the speed while the sectional plane represents the distance of the galaxies from Earth, thus confirming the disguised use of law (2) The additional unreassuring point is that the picture is presented in [7] WITHOUT stating that Earth must necessarily be at the tip of the funnel, that is, at the center of the universe, thus confirming a century old obscurantism of historical proportions.

Figure 2 refers to a claimed acceleration which is constant in time. It should be indicated that the second conjecture of an acceleration increasing in time [8] implies a more complex funnel-type geometry identified in Ref. [6] but again, without the indication that Earth must be at the initiation of the funnel, thus being at the center of the universe, by therefore confirming a century-old obscurantism in cosmology of historical proportions. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions disproving that the expansion of the universe implies Earth at its center..



I.4. Geometric inconsistency of the expansion of the universe.

In addition to the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe, an additional objection against the expansion of the universe is that conjecture (3) implies relative speeds among galaxies having different values for different observers, with ensuing catastrophic geometric inconsistency of conjecture [18-44].

Figure I.3: The diagram of this figure provides a geometric representation of the expansion of the universe showing galaxy G1 at a distance d1 from Earth E which is double the distance d2 of galaxy G2, thus implying a relative an acceleration between said galaxies since v1 = 2 v2. However, there exist an infinite number of observers in the universe for which galaxies G1 and G2 are at the same distance, such as observer G, with consequential lack of relative acceleration and ensuing catastrophic inconsistency of conjecture (3).

It is unfortunately for human knowledge, the Wikipoedia-academic complex continues to ignore the catastrophic inconsistencies depicted in Figures 2 and 3 despite their publication in refereed scientific journals [17-44] and their large propagation in international conferences, interviews and world wide PRWeb Releases [2], thus confirming the existence of serious problems of scientific ethics and accountability in cosmology. ZeusSon.

Editorial NOTE: We solicit contributions disproving the catastrophic inconsistency of Figure 3.



I.5. Inconsistencies of the big bang conjecture.

With the passing of time, there was an increase of the objections against Conjecture I on the expansion of the universe, and Conjecture II on the accelerate of the expansion. Rather than admitting the inconsistencies, orthodox physicists decided to introduce a third conjecture aimed at the support of the preceding ones for the unspoken, yet evident intent of maintaining the validity of Einstein special relativity in cosmology.

This scientific scene led to the formulation of Conjecture III, known as the big bang [9], according to which the universe originated from a primordial explosion occurred some 14.7 billion years ago, which explosion would "explain" the expansion of the universe. Unfortunately for the credibility of orthodox physicists, Conjecture III is equally afflicted by numerous inconsistencies published in refereed journals (see Refs. [18-44] and papers quoted therein), such as:

1. As a necessary condition to comply with the measured cosmological redshifts (1), the big bang must have occurred in our galactic vicinity, thus implying again the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe.

2. By the very definition of an "explosion" (see the Webster Dictionary), there should not be no galaxy around Earth for 14.7 billion light years, contrary to a rather uniform distribution of galaxies in the universe.

3. The "debris" of an explosion (in our case, the galaxies) should slow down with the distance contrary to conjecture (3).

4. There is no possibility whatsoever that a primordial explosion can explain the increase of the claimed speeds of galaxies with the increase of the distance.

5. The big bang conjecture merely shifted the unknown origin of the expansion of the universe into the unknown origin of big bang itself; and other inconsistencies.

Figure I.4: A conceptual rendering of Conjecture III on the big bang [9]. The mere comparison of such a view with measured values (1) confirms the necessity for Earth being at the center of the universe, as well as the impossibility for the big bang conjecture to provide a consistent "explanation" of the expansion of the universe for which it was proffered. Note that, a primordial explosion cannot represent the current, rather regular distributions of galaxies unless the big bang was a kind of a slow kind of expansion far from any explosion.

Supporters of the validity of Einstein's special relativity in cosmology claim that the cosmic background radiation [10] is an "experimental evidence" on the existence of the big bang [10]. In reality, one of Prof. Santilli's graduate students when he was at Harvard University proved that, in the event the cosmic background radiation originated 14.7 billions years ago, it should have been completely absorbed by galaxies and the inter-galactic medium over five billion years ago due to its weakness. This occurrence establishes the need for a continuous source of energy to maintain the cosmic background radiation whose origin is identified in Part II.

Unfortunately for the credibility of the Wikipedia-academic complex, none of the above inconsistencies are mentioned in the orthodox literature, while the quotation of opposing experimental papers such as Refs. [18-44], not only has been opposed for decades by Wikipedia, but actually discredited without any counter-experiment with dubbing such as "fringe science" [16], thus confirming problems of scientific ethics and accountability. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions disproving the inconsistencies of the big bang conjecture.



I.6. Inconsistencies of the hyperbolic conjecture that space itself is expanding.

With the passing of time, there was an increase of the rejections by qualified scholars of the Conjectures I, II and III due to their manifest inconsistencies. Rather than admitting them and promoting a new era in cosmology, perhaps banking on the world wide support by their fellows, orthodox physicists decided to promote a fourth conjecture, again aimed at the support of the preceding three failed conjectures studiously conceived to maintain Einstein's special relativity in cosmology in a way not to be experimentally verifiable.

The situation became truly embarrassing for Einstein followers because the Hubble telescope established the existence of galaxies at the edge of the visible universe whose cosmological redshift was so big to require billions of galaxies traveling at speeds bigger that of light, thus being in flagrant violation of special relativity for which validity all conjectures had been ventured.

This scenario lead orthodox physicists to formulate the truly hyperbolic Conjecture IV according to which galaxies are now moving because space itself is expanding [7]. What is simply astonishing is the fact that such a hyperbolic conjecture was ventured and supported world wide by orthodox physicists without any explanation whatsoever of what is space, how the enormous entirety of space could expand and if so, how it could possibly carry along trillions and trillions of galaxies.

The problem for the credibility of organized orthodox followers of Einstein is that the expansion of space itself, besides failed to provide any "scientific" representation (that is quantitative with equations) of the expansion of the universe, is afflicted by the same inconsistencies of the preceding four conjectures, as illustrated in Figure 5.

Figure I.5: The hyperbolic fourth conjecture on the expansion of space itself [7] was specifically voiced to avoid the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe that are unavoidable for the preceding Conjectures I, II, and III, as well as to avoid the violation of special relativity established by created by astrophysical measurements via the Hubble telescopes according to which billions of galaxies at the edge of the known universe have such a cosmological redshift to require their traveling at speeds much bigger than the speed of light. In a rather incredible and naive way, the hyperbolic conjecture of the expansion of space itself is generally illustrated with the inflation of the ballon in this figure. The problem for organized Einstein followers is that the inflation of balloons "does not" represent in a consistent way the expansion of the universe, as one can easily see by noting that the acceleration of the expansion with the distance would require an extremely complex, hitherto unknown geometry far from they simplistic inflation of balloons.

Particularly embarrassing for orthodox physicists is the failure to represent the acceleration of the expansion with an expanding space because, in this case, the expansion should follow a truly hyperbolic geometry essentially adapted to each galaxy under observation. What is most unreassuring is the complete silence on the physical origin of the claimed expansion of the immensity of space [7].

To have an idea of the lack of any serious scientific process, one should know that, to propagate light at 200,000 Km/sec, space (or the universal substratum) is expansion has such a density that one cubic centimeter of space should contain more energy than that contained in the entire Sun. The energy needed for the expansion of a space with such a density would be so immensely large to be a large multiple of the universe itself. Therefore, Conjecture IV on the expansion of space itself is so hyperbolic and scientifically unfounded to multiply pre-existing problems of scientific ethics and accountability to such dimension to create a true scientific obscurantism of hysteric proportions. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions disproving the catastrophic inconsistencies indicated in this section.



I.7. Inconsistencies of the conjecture of cosmological inflation.

With the passing of time, there was an increase of the number of rejections of the cosmological Conjectures I, II, III, and IV because each conjecture failed to resolve the inconsistencies of the preceding one, thus creating serious doubts on the main objective, that is, the validity of special relativity in the large scale structure of the universe. Rather than admitting the experimentally established "inapplicability" of the latter theory in cosmology (see Part II), Einstein followers continued in their chain of sequential conjectures by using, this time, authority of Einstein general relativity.

This scenario led to Conjecture V known as cosmological inflation, which reexamines the failed big bang for very short and very large periods of times following the claimed original explosion [11]. Rather than achieving the intended aim, the introduction of general relativity caused additional losses of credibility of the Wikipedia-academic complex for numerous reasons.

In fact, for extremely short periods of time following the claimed explosion, where an intense gravitational field is expected, the use of general relativity causes a collapse of credibility [11] because general relativity is, without doubt, the most controversial theory of the 20th century, since the bending of star light is due to the refraction of light in the Sun chromosphere plus the conventional Newtonian contribution, without any evidence for the curvature of space, see Debate on General relativity. Lacking serious evidence on the curvature of space, Conjecture V becomes a kind of political scientific dogma.

Figure I.6: A conceptual rendering of the cosmological inflation [11] attempting to provide an "explanation" of the small and large scale structure of the big bang via Einstein's general relativity. Rather than achieving credibility, this cosmological conjecture has caused an increase of rejections because, in the small scale part space cannot be curved (see the Debate on General relativity) and in the large scale part space cannot be curved according to general relativity itself due to the extreme intergalactic distances, thus confirming the political character of the entire chain of contemporary cosmological conjectures.

Additionally, cosmic inflation is claimed to represent the large scale structure of the universe which is an abuse of Einstein's name because space is absolutely flat in the large scale structure of the universe due to the extreme mutual distances of the galaxies. It is simply astonishing that supporters of the cosmic inflation simply ignore these insufficiencies published in refereed journal, thus suggesting that they operate under an assumed impunity guaranteed by their orthodox colleagues the world over. ZeusSon

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions, firstly, establishing the curvature of space via the disproof of its refraction in the Sun chromosphere and secondly, prove that intergalactic space is actually curved as a necessary condition to consider the use of general relativity under public research funds.



I.8. Inconsistencies of the conjecture of dark matter.

The use of Hubble telescope identified an additional problem for the chain of cosmological conjectures I, II, III, IV and V, given by the fact that the redshift of individual stars of a galaxy does not generally coincide with the redshift of the galaxy as a whole (see Figure 7 and Ref. [12]), an effect referred to as innergalactic redshift anomaly.

During the period of the detection of the indicated anomaly, a number of experimental papers were published establishing the lack of exact character of special relativity within atmosphere or chromosphere, thus establishing said inapplicability within the dense intergalactic gas which is visible in telescopes [18-44].

In this scenario, orthodox physicist proffered the additional Conjecture VI according to which galaxies are completely filled up by a mysterious substance called dark matter, that, following a world wide propaganda, flared up the imagination of a number of physicists, thus derailing the attention from the real physical issue, the inapplicability of special relativity within intergalactic gases which is assumed, via silence, to remain fully valid [11].

Unfortunately for the credibility of Wikipedia and its orthodox controllers, the conjecture of dark matter has provided to date no representation published in refereed journals of the innergalactic redshift anomaly for which it was proffered. In reality, papers in the scientific literature [2] proving that dark matter conjecture cannot represent said data, because due to its uniform distribution throughout a galaxy, its action on individual stars cancel out. In any case, a mere inspection of the data of Figure 7 clearly shows the impossibility of their representation via any uniformly distributed substance.

Figure I.7: The picture presents the measured value of the redshift of individual stars of a galaxy showing a rather dramatic departure from the redshift of the galaxy as a whole [44]. A sixth conjecture was launched for the interpretation of this anomaly, that of the dark matter permeating the entire galaxy, without any representation at all of the data here reported for which representation the conjecture was proffered and actually, the impossibility of their representation due to the assumed uniform distribution of the assumed mysterious substance.

Due to the failure of the conjecture of dark matter to represent the data it was intended for, one can see the continuation of the century old trend of attempting to salvage a failed conjecture via an additional conjecture. In fact, the orthodox physics community is already attempting the shift from a macroscopic to a microscopic level, by reducing dark matter to even more mysterious particles, such as the WIMP, the axion, the darkalino, etc., all with the above at the cost of hundreds of millions of taxpayers money [11].

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions by researchers on antimatter under public financial support to prove that the conjecture of dark matter represents indeed in a quantitative way (with equations) the innergalactic redshift anomalies.



I.9. Inconsistencies of the conjecture of dark energy.

Despite an intense propaganda on the preceding six conjectures, the conjecture of the expansion of the universe remained fundamentally inconsistent on conceptual, geometric and experimental grounds. Rather than admitting the failure of these conjectures, perhaps encouraged by the silence of the majority of the physics community, orthodox physicists continued in their century old posture, that of keep adding blatantly inconsistent conjectures in support of preceding inconsistent conjectures.

This scenario led to the formulation of Conjecture VII aimed at the "explanation" of the expansion of the universe via the conjecture that the universe is filled up by another mysterious substance called <>em>dark energy in such amount to constitute the great majority of the energy in the universe [13].

The collapse of the credibility by Wikipedia and its controllers is caused by the fact that, exactly as it was the case for dark matter, the conjecture of dark energy never achieved any quantitative representation of the expansion of the universe for which it was conceived for. As a matter of fact, there are papers published in refereed journals [2] proving that the conjecture of dark energy cannot represent the expansion of the universe, again because it is uniformly distributed, thus yielding a null total effect on galaxies.

Figure I.8: A pictorial view from Wikipedia [13] of the seventh conjecture of 20th century cosmology, that of the so-called dark energy which is believed to fill up the entire universe and represent the expansion of the universe. The loss of credibility by Wikipedia and its controllers is that such a task has been proved to be impossible, due to the uniform distributions of the second mysterious entity and other reasons, in various papers published in refereed journals whose citation in Wikipedia has been prohibited for decades.

It is particularly astonishing that, in their fervor to maintain special relativity in cosmology, the proposal of dark energy was made in complete oblivion of the work by Albert Einstein who established that energy is the source of gravitational "attraction," and certainly not "repulsion", the oblivion Einstein's failed attempts in changing the field equations of general relativity into a form admitting gravitational repulsion as need for the expansion of the universe, for which very reason Einstein died without accepting the conjecture of the expansion of the universe. ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions by orthodox physicists doing research in the field under public financial support to prove that the conjecture of dark energy does indeed represent the expansion of the universe for which it was proposed.



I.10. Conclusions

Readers unaware of the problems of ethics and accountability in the contemporary scientific community tend to approach cosmology with the expectation that science is established by papers published in refereed scientific journals, as it has been the case since the beginning of quantitative science.

Unfortunately for America, this century-old rule no longer applies because the only sciences considered for funding by the National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy and other federal funding agencies are those presented in Wikipedia's so called 'Articles,' thus resulting in a serious shadow ion the image of American science in the world as well as in history

This explains the extreme hostility by Wikipedia against the quotation of serious criticisms of, let alone advances over Einstein's special and general relativities, as documented by the dabbing of works [16-44] as being "fringe science" [16]. The indicated condition also explains the opposition by Wikipedia, documented over decades, to quote refereed papers on the serious inconsistencies of the seven conjectures on the expansion of the universe. The pertinent question for Americans who really care for our Country is: For how long more should this this anti-American situation be tolerated? ZeusSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: We solicit contributions proving that websites [9-17] verify Wikipedia rules.



PART II:
EXPERIENTIAL EVIDENCE ON THE LACK OF EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE

II.1. Arp's pair of quasars and their associated galaxies.

The first experimental evidence proving the inconsistency of the conjecture of the expansion of the universe, and the inconsistency of the big bang in particular, was reached in the 1960's by the American astrophysicist at Harvard University, Halton Arp [48], with the discovery of quasars that are physically associated to galaxies according to clear gamma spectroscopic evidence, while their cosmological redshifts are dramatically different. Like many other illustrious physicists (Section I.2) Halton Arp died in 2014, without accepting the expansion of the conjectures universe and the big bang.

Arp's discovery constitutes experimental evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe, as well as the inconsistency of the big bang, because according to such conjectures the quasars and their associated galaxies should have separated billions of years ago and moved away from Earth at dramatically different speeds, while in reality said quasars and their associated galaxies are at rest with each other.

Arp's experimental discovery implies the inapplicability of Einstein's special relativity within the hyperdense quasar chromospheres and intergalactic media, thus implying its inapplicability for the large scale structure of the universe. Consequently, orthodox physicists at Harvard University approached Arp, requesting that he should dismiss his discovery. Arp rejected such an unethical request, and consequently, he was forced to leave Harvard University, was unable to locate an academic job anywhere in the USA, was forced to emigrate to Germany for an academic job at the Max Planck Institute, and was prohibited an access to an astrophysical laboratory anywhere in the world [49].

Figure II.1: The view of one of Arp's pair of quasars that are physically connected to corresponding galaxies according to gamma spectroscopic evidence quite visible in the above, picture while the cosmological redshift of the quasar and that of its associated galaxy are dramatically different, that of the quasar generally being a large multiple that of the galaxy. Arp's discovery constitutes the first experimental evidence on the lack of expansion of the universe, as well as of the lack of consistency of the big bang conjecture. Consequently, Arp's discovery implies the inapplicability of special relativity in the large scale structure of the universe, for which reasons Arp was the victim of unprecedented academic abuses by orthodox physicists.

Following the case of Zwicky's tired light, Arp's case is a second episode causing serious damage to the credibility of the American science in the world as well as in history due to the discrediting of Arp's discovery via academic abuses without any serious technical argument. As indicated in Part I, everybody is entitled to his/her own opinion. The problem of scientific ethics and accountability emerge when such opinions are voiced under public financial support while discrediting opposing "experimental" evidence via organized abuse of unfortunate academic authority. Particularly unreassuring is the account of Arp's historical discovery in Wikipedia [50] due to the care in avoiding a review of the evidence depicted in this figure, the emphasis in "theories," rather than hard experimental measurements, and other misinformation.

EDITORIAL NOTE: we solicit contributions in the field.



II.2. Zwicky's hypothesis of the 'Tired Light'.

To avoid the return to the Middle Ages with Earth at the center of the universe which is implicit in the conjecture of the expansion of the universe (Part I), the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky [46] introduced in 1929 the hypothesis of tired light according to which light reaching us from far away galaxies loses energy to the intergalactic medium, (mostly composed of hydrogen), by therefore experiencing a redshift proportional to the covered distance in accordance with Hubble law (1) without any need for the expansion of the universe.

The energy of light is given by E = hν, where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency. Therefore, the loss of energy E implies a decrease of the frequency (or an increase of the wavelength), with consequential redshift, in a way proportionate to the covering intergalactic distance d. Consequently, Zwicky tired light provides a direct representation of the experimental measurements according to Hubble's law (1) without any intermediate conjecture)

A main implication of Zwicky's tired light is that it implies the inapplicability of Einstein special relativity within physical media, such as the intergalactic medium composed mostly of hydrogen, and the consequential inapplicability of special relativity in the large scale structure of the universe. Consequently, Zwicky's hypothesis has been discredited for about one century, and it continues to be discredited to this day with dubbing such as that by Wikipedia [37] of being in the "fringes of astrophysics," while prohibiting the quotation in the same article [47] its experimental verification by Prof. Santilli review in Section II.3 below.

Figure II.2: The redness of Sunlight at Sunset is visual evidence of the validity of Zwicky's hypothesis of tired light, the only difference being that at Sunset we have the travel of light for about 6,000 km in our dense atmosphere, while galactic light travels in a rarefied gas for millions or billions of years, thus implying the same physical law. In order to maintain the validity of special relativity within our atmosphere, and therefore dismiss Zwicky's hypothesis, orthodox physicists claim that said redness is not due to the redshift of blue light into red light, but to absorption of blue light by our atmosphere. However, such (a view is political because it is well known that red light is rapidly absorbed by our atmosphere, as proved by the fact that the sky is blue rather than red), and cannot survive the 6,000 km travel at the horizon. Additional criticisms of Zwicky's hypothesis results as being equally political at close scrutiny, such as the claim that Zwicky's hypothesis would prevent far away galaxies from being seen by us, which criticism, in case correct, would identically apply to the expansion of the universe.

The century-old episode of Zwicky's tired light is seriously damaging the image of the American science in the word as well as in history because of the supine acceptance by the American academic community at large of the discreditation of the hypothesis without any credible technical argument for evident political intents. To understand the gravity of the episode, the plausibility of Zwicky's hypothesis and the possibility of its experimental verification on Earth (as done by Prof. Santilli, see below), should be compared with the extreme implausibility of the preferred cosmological conjectures, such as that of the expansion of space itself, as well as the impossibility for their experimental verifications on Earth. JupiterSon.

EDITORIAL NOTE: we solicit contributions in the field.



II.3. Santilli experimental confirmation of Zwicky's tired light

As a result of extensive mathematical, theoretical and experimental research over four decades [16-44], Prof, R. M. santilli achieved systematic experimental confirmations on Earth that light does lose energy to col media, thus confirming Zwicky's hypothesis of the tired light, while providing experimental evidence on the lack of the expansion of the universe, as well as of the remaining six conjectures.

As a result of this effort, when applied to cosmology, the discovery is often referred to as the Zwicky-Santilli effect, while the effect is generically known as Santilli isoredshift. where the prefix "iso" stands to indicate the new mathematics needed for its treatment. In this section we outline the main aspects of Prof. Santilli;s discovery.

Figure II.3: An illustration of the main mechanism of Santilli's experimentally verified isoredshift and isoblueshifts first proposed in monograph [33] and then worked out in numerous works. When seen from the left, light hit a hydrogen of the intergalactic medium atom in its ground state (because at absolute zero degree temperature), which atom is therefore excited by absorbing the necessary energy from light that consequently experiences an isoredshift. Note that Santilli isoredshift explains Zwicky;s hypothesis of tired light without any need for the expansion of the universe, and provides the energy needed for the maintaining of the cosmic background radiation.

MATHEMATICAL STUDIES. The mathematics underlying special relativity, such as the Minkowskian geometry for the spacetime, solely applies to the homogeneous and isotropic vacuum. As such, said mathematics is inapplicable for a quantitative representation of electromagnetic waves propagating within inhomogeneous and anisotropic media such as our atmosphere.

For this reason, Prof. Santilli was forced to construct a new mathematics, today called Santilli isomathematics. which is applicable to inhomogeneous and anisotropic media. The foundations of the new mathematics were presented in monographs [18] written by Prof. Santilli when he was in the faculty of Harvard University, and then completed in refs. [19,20] with a review presented in Vol. I of monographs [21]. A rudimentary outline of the new mathematics is available in the joining debate Do Neutrinos Really Exist?

Figure II.4: A pictorial view from Volume II of monographs [3]3] presenting the representation of the difference in cosmological redshifts in Arp's pair of a quasar and its associated galaxy via the difference between the very large quasar cromosphere and the intergalactic gas with consequential difference in energy released by light. Consequently, light exist the quasar chromosphere much more redshifted than light existing the galaxy.

PHYSICAL STUDIES. Following the achievement of the new isomathematics with particular reference to a suitable generalization of Lie's theory, Santilli achieved the invariance of locally varying speeds of light within physical media C - c/n in the Nuovo Cimento Letter [22,23], the first at the classical level and the second at the operator level by reaching a new symmetry nowadays known as the Lorentz-Santilli isosymmetry.

After that Santilli achieved the corresponding generalization of "all" spacetime symmetry in Refs. [24-29], resulting in a broader symmetry nowadays known as the Lorenz-Poincare'-Santilli isosymmetry, whose universality for all (time reversal invariant) processes within physical media was proved in Refs. [30-32] (see Vol. II of monographs [21] for a general review).

Figure II.5: A view of Santilli isoshift testing station used to establish that individual frequencies of laser light lose energy to )gain energy from) a cold (hot gas, thus confirming Santilli isorelativity [33,1].

Following, and only following all these preliminary studies, Santilli achieved in Refs. [33] a step-by-step generalization of special relativity, beginning with its axioms, for dynamics within physical media, which generalization was then studied again by Santilli in various works (see the latest account [1]), and it is nowadays known as Santilli isorelativity.

The most important aspect for the above studies for the verification of Zwicky's hypothesis is the generalization of the Doppler axiom into a broader form for light propagating within physical media which can be written in first approximation

z = ± v/c ± K d    (4)

where "+ v/c" ("- v/c') refers to the conventional Doppler effect for motion away (toward) the observer' "+ Hd" refer to a basically new effect called Santilli isoredshift characterized by light losing energy to a cold medium; "- Kd; is another basically new effect called Santilli isoblueshift characterized by light gaining energy from a hot medium; K is constant (in first approximation); and d is the distance traveled by light in the considered medium.

Figure II.6: A view of the first historical scan in scientific record obtained by Santilli in 2010 [35], and then confirmed in numerous subsequent tests, establishing the decrease (isoredshift) of the frequency of a blue laser light (rad line) when passing through a gas at low temperature and the increase (isoblueshift) of the frequency ()blue line) of the same laser light when passes through the same gas but at high temperature. By remember that the immutability of light is the central pillar of special relativity, the scan reproduced in this figure establishes the inapplicability of Einstein's special relativity within a gaseous medium and, consequently, in cosmology.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES. Numerous physics laboratories around the world refused for decades the conduction of the simple experiments needed to confirm the predictions of the isoredshift and the isoblueshift. according to law (4). Therefore, Santilli had no other choice than that of conducting the experiments himself at the laboratory of the Institute for Basic Research in Tarpon Springs, Florida. For this purpose he built the isoshift testing station depicted in Figure II.xxxxx where he conducted systematic tests establishing that the individual frequencies of laser light do indeed experience an isoredshift when passing through a gas at low temperature and an isoblueshift when passing through the same gas at high temperature.

Figure II.7: One of the numerous scans of the entire spectrum, of visible Sunlight done by Santilli from the Zenith to the horizon establishing the existence of a redshift for about 90 nm, namely, the shift of Sunlight from the white color at theZenith to the red color at the horizon [36049]. These measurements have provided experimental confirmation of the validity of Zwicky's hypothesis of tired light, resulting in an effect at times called the 'Zwicky0-Santilli effect.'

Following these tests, Santilli conducted additional systematic experimental measurements in the U.S.A. as well as in Europe establishing that Sunlight experiences an isoredshift of about 90 nanometers in the transition from the Zenith to the horizon. Since 90 nanometers are the difference in length between blue and red light, Santilli's experiments establish that in the transition from the Zenith to the Horizon, blue Sunlight releases sufficient energy to our atmosphere to perform the transition into the red-light we see at Sunset (Figure II.1).

In particular, measurements [zzzz] established that the Doppler effect is irrelevant for the redness of Sunlight at Sunset because being given by v/c, it is of the order of 10 -6 nm. Consequently, the redness of the Sun at Sunset is entirely due to Santilli isoredshift in law (4).

EDITORIAL NOTE: we solicit contributions in the field.



PART III:
THE NEW ERA IN COSMOLOGY
References to review [51-87[

UNDER CONSTRUCTION AND EDITING

III.1. The need of antimatter galaxies for the stability of a non-expanding universe

IIII,2. The evidence of the past devastation on Earth caused by antimatter asteroids

III.3.. Matter-antimatter annihilation and its implications

III.4.. The principles of the Galileo and Santilli telescopes

III.5.. Santilli's historical detections ofd antimatter galaxies, antimatter asteroids and antimatter cosmic rays.

REFERENCES

[1] R. M. Santilli. "An introduction to the new sciences for a new era," Invited paper, SIPS 2016, Hainan Island, China, Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 6, No. 1, pp. 1-119, 2017
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/new-sciences-new-era.pdf

[2] P. Fleming, "Collected papers, interviews, seminars and international press releases on the lack of expansion of the universe"
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/No-universe-expans.pdf

[3] E. Hubble, in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, {\bf15}, 168 (1929), s.

[4] A.Einstein, Ann. Phys. {\bf 17,} 891 (1905).

[5] Encyclopedia Britannica, the Manhattan project
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[6] Wikipedia, Hubble's Law
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[7] Wikipedia, Metric Expansion of space
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[8] Wikipedia, Acceleration of the expansion of the universe,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accelerating_expansion_of_the_universe

[9] Wikipedia, Big Bang,
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[10] Wikipedia, Cosmic microwave radiation
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[11] Wikipedia, Cosmological Inflation
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[12] Wikipedia, Dark Matter
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[13] Wikipedia, Dark Energy
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[14] Wikipedia, Special Relativity
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_relativity

[15] Wikipedia, General Relativity,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/General_relativity

[16] Wikipedia, Ruggero Maria Santilli
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[17] Wikipedia, Tired Light
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tired_light

[18] R. M. Santilli, Foundation of Theoretical Mechanics, Volume I (1978), and Volume II (1982), Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany,
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-209.pdf
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[19] R. M. Santilli, "Isonumbers and Genonumbers of Dimensions 1, 2, 4, 8, their Isoduals and Pseudoduals, and "Hidden Numbers" of Dimension 3, 5, 6, 7," Algebras, Groups and Geometries Vol. 10, 273 (1993),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-34.pdf

[20] R. M. Santilli, "Nonlocal-Integral Isotopies of Differential Calculus, Mechanics and Geometries," in Isotopies of Contemporary Mathematical Structures, P. Vetro Editor, Rendiconti Circolo Matematico Palermo, Suppl. Vol. 42, 7-82 (1996),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-37.pdf

[21] R. M. Santilli, Elements of Hadronic Mechanics, Volumes I and II (1995), Ukraine Academy of Sciences, Kiev, Ukraine,
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-300.pdf
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-301.pdf

[22] R. M. Santilli, "Lie-isotopic Lifting of Special Relativity for Extended Deformable Particles," Lettere Nuovo Cimento {\bf 37}, 545 (1983),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-50.pdf

[23] R. M. Santilli, "Lie-isotopic Lifting of Unitary Symmetries and of Wigner's Theorem for Extended and Deformable Particles," Lettere Nuovo Cimento Vol. 38, 509 (1983),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-51.pdf

[24] R. M. Santilli, ''Isotopies of Lie Symmetries," I (basic theory) and II (isotopies of the rotational symmetry), Hadronic J. Vol. 8, 36 (1985),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/santilli-65.pdf

[25] R. M. Santilli, "Isotopic Lifting of the SU(2) Symmetry with Applications to Nuclear Physics," JINR rapid Comm. Vol. 6. 24-38 (1993),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-19.pdf

[26] R. M. Santilli, "Nonlinear, Nonlocal and Noncanonical Isotopies of the Poincare' Symmetry," Journal of the Moscow Phys. Soc. Vol. 3, 255 (1993),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-40.pdf

[27] R. M. Santilli, "Recent theoretical and experimental evidence on the synthesis of the neutron," Communication of the JINR, Dubna, Russia, No. E4-93-252 (1993),

[28] R. M. Santilli, "Isorepresentation of the Lie-isotopic SU(2) Algebra with Application to Nuclear Physics and Local Realism," Acta Applicandae Mathematicae Vol. 50, 177 (1998),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-27.pdf

[29] R. M. Santilli, "Isominkowskian Geometry for the Gravitational Treatment of Matter and its Isodual for Antimatter," Intern. J. Modern Phys. D {\bf 7}, 351 (1998),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-35.pdf

[30] A. K. Aringazin and K. M. Aringazin, "Universality of Santilli's iso-Minkowskian geometry" in {\it Frontiers of Fundamental Physics,} M. Barone and F. Selleri, Editors Plenum (1995), available as free download from
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[31] J. V. Kadeisvili, "Direct universality of the Lorentz-Poincare'-Santilli isosymmetry for extended-deformable particles, arbitrary speeds of light and all possible spacetimes" in {\it Photons: Old problems in Light of New Ideas,} V. V. Dvoeglazov Editor Nova Science (2000, available as free download from
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-25.pdf

[32] R. M. Santilli, "Direct universality of isospecial relativity for photons with arbitrary speeds" in Photons: Old problems in Light of New Ideas, V. V. Dvoeglazov Editor Nova Science (2000),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-24.pdf

[33] R. M. Santilli, Isotopic Generalizations of Galilei and Einstein Relativities, Vols. I and II (1991), Ukraine Academy of Sciences
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-01.pdf
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-61.pdf

[34] R. Mignani, Physics Essay 1992; 5, 531, available in pdf download from the link http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-31.pdf

[35] R. M. Santilli, "Experimental Verifications of IsoRedShift with Possible Absence of Universe Expansion, Big Bang, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy," The Open Astronomy Journal {\bf 3}, 124 (2010),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-isoredshift.pdf

[36] R. M. Santilli, "Experimental Verification of IsoRedShift and its Cosmological Implications," contributed paper to the {\it Proceedings of the International Conference on Numerical Analysis and Applied Mathematics,} Rhodes, Greece, September 19-25, 2010, T. E. Simos, Editor, American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings Vol. 1281, pp. 882-885 (2010)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Isoredshift-Letter.pdf

[37] R. M. Santilli, G. West and G. Amato, "Experimental Confirmation of the IsoRedShift at Sun, at Sunset and Sunrise with Consequential Absence of Universe Expansion and Related Conjectures, " Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 12, pages 165-188 (2012)
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-sun-IRS.pdf

[38] G. West and G. Amato, "Experimental Confirmation of Santilli's IsoRedShift and IsoBlueShift," contributed paper to the {\it Proceedings of the San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and Antimatter,} Republic of San Marino, September 5 to 9, 2011, in press (2012),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Confirmation-IRS-IBS.pdf

[39] H. Ahmar, G. Amato, J. V. Kadeisvili, J. Manuel, G. West, and O. Zogorodnia, "Additional experimental confirmations of Santilli's IsoRedShift and the consequential lack of expansion of the universe,"Journal of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering, Vol. 13, page 321 (2013),
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/IRS-confirmations-212.pdf

[40] R. M. Santilli, "Representation of galactic dynamics via isoshifts without universe expansion, dark matter and dark energy," American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 4, pages 26-43, 2015
http://www.thunder-energies.com/docs/dark-matter-2015.pdf

[41] S J. Dhoble, "Cosmological implications of Santilli IRS and IBR," to appear (2014) http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/irs-ibs-2014.pdf

[42] R. Anderson, et al, Editors, {\it San Marino Workshop on Astrophysics and Cosmology for Matter and Antimatter,} September 5 to 9, 2011,
http://www.workshops-hadronic-mechanics.org
main lectures available in free view or download from the link
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/san-marino-2011
and lectures from subsequent meetings in the links
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/level-v
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/san-marino-2011
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/kos-2012
http://www.world-lecture-series.org/invited-2014-keynote-lectures

[43] R. M. Santilli, Hadronic Mathematics, Mechanics and Chemistry, Vol. I, II, III, IV and V (2006), International Academic Press,
http://www.i-b-r.org/Hadronic-Mechanics.htm

[44] I. Gandzha and J. Kadeisvili, New Sciences for a New Era: Mathematical, Physical and Chemical Discoveries of Ruggero Maria Santilli, Sankata Printing Press, Nepal (2011),
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[45] Wik selfcriticism

[46] F. Zwicky, "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, {\bf 15}, 773 (1929)
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[47] wikiupedia, Tired Light
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[48] H. Arp. {\it Quasars Redshift and Controversies.} Interstellar Media, Berkeley (1987).

[49] J. Dunning-Davies. Exploding a Myth,, Horwood Publishing Limited, 2007
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[53] R. M. Santilli, A Classical Isodual Theory Of Antimatter And Its Prediction Of Antigravity, International Journal of Modern Physics A, 14 (1999) 2205-2238.
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[53] R. M. Santilli, ``Representation of antiparticles via isodual numbers, spaces and geometries, " Comm. Theor. Phys. 1994 {\bf 3,} 153-181
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[56] R. M. Santilli, ``Antigravity," Hadronic J. 1994 {\bf 17,} 257-284
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[57] P. Mills, A. ``Possibilities of measuring the gravitational mass of electrons and positrons in free horizontal flight," contributed paper for the proceedings of the In- international Conference on Antimatter, held in Sepino, Italy, May 1996, published in the Hadronic J. 1996 {\bf 19,} 77-96\\ http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Santilli-11.pdf.

[54] V. de Haan, ``Proposal for the realization of Santilli comparative test on the gravity of electrons and positr8ns via a horizontal supercooled vacuum tube, "Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University, 2011, pages 57-67
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[59] V.de Haan, ``Proposal for the realization of Santilli comparative test on the gravity of electrons and positrons via a horizontal supercooled vacuum tube", Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University, (2011), pp. 57-67.
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[60] A. E. Charman et al, ALPHA Collaboration, Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen," Nature Communications, April 2013. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms2787

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[62] R. M. Santilli, ``Does antimatter emit a new light?" Invited paper for the proceedings of the International Conference on Antimatter, held in Sepino, Italy, on May 1996, published in Hyperfine Interactions 1997, {\bf 109,} 63-81
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[63] R. M. Santilli, ``Isotopic relativity for matter and its isodual for antimatter," Gravitation 1997, {\bf 3,} 2..

[64] P. S. Muktibodh, ``Introduction to Isodual Mathematics and its Application to Special Relativity," American Institute of Physics Proceedings 2013
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[65] J. Dunning-Davies, "Thermodynamics of antimatter via Santilli's isodualities." Found. Phys./ Vol. 12, page 593 (1999)
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[66] S. Beghella-Bartoli, R. M. Santilli, ``Possible Role of Antimatter Galaxies for the Stability of the Universe," American Journal of Modern Physics 2016; 5(2-1): 185-190
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/pdf11.pdf.

[67] R. M. Santilli, ``Can antimatter asteroids, stars and galaxies be detected with current means?" in {\it Proceedings of the Third International Conference on the Lie-Admissible Treatment of Irreversible Processes,} C. Corda, Editor, Kathmandu University (2011) pages 25-36
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/Antimatter-Asteroid.pdf \

[68] R. M. Santilli,``The Mystery of Detecting Antimatter Asteroids, Stars and Galaxies," American Institute of Physics, Proceed. 2012, {\bf 1479,} 1028-1032 (2012)
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[69] R. M. Santilli, "Apparent detection of antimatter galaxies via a telescope with convex lenses," Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications vol. 3, 2014, pages 1-26 (Cambridge, U.K.,
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[70]R. M. Santilli, ``Representative pictures from the Antimatter telescope,"
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[71] P. Bhujbal, J. V. Kadeisvili, A. Nas, S Randall, and T. R. Shelke. ``Preliminary confirmation of antimatter detection via Santilli telescope with concave lenses," Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications Vol. 3, pages 27-39, 2014 (Cambridge, UK)
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[72] S. Beghella-Bartoli, P. M. Bhujbal, A. Nas, ``Confirmation of Santilli's Detection of Antimatter Galaxies via a Telescope with Concave Lenses," American Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4, pp 34-41 (2015)
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[73] R. M. Santilli, ``Apparent Detection of a New Antimatter Galaxy in the Capella Region of the Night Sky," Clifford Analysis, Clifford Algebras and their Applications, in press (2016)]]
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[81] Vougiouklis, "An Introduction to Santilli's Isodual Representation of Antimatter and the Ensuing Problem of Detecting Antimatter Asteroids", Numta Bulletin Issue 6-7, (2013). pp. 1-33
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[82] B. Davvaz, B. M. Santilli, and T. Vougiouklis, ``Studies of Multi-Valued Hyperstructures for the Characterization of Matter-Antimatter Systems and their Extension, in Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Lie-admissible Formulations for Irreversible Processes, C. Corda, editor, Kathmandu University, Nepal, 2011, pages 45-57,
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[83] Terrestrial Entities," American Journal of Modern Physics Vol. 5, issue 3, pages 45-53, 2016
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[84] R. M. Santilli Il Grande Grido - - Ethical Problem of Einstein followers in the U.S.A: An Insider's View, (1984) and Documentation of Il Grande Grido, Vols. I, II and III (1985)m Alpha Publishing
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[85] John Ross, Editor, The Harvard Crimson, "The Politicxs of ASciencxe,"
http://www.santilli-foundation.org/docs/HarvardCrimson.pdf

[86] Jeremy Dunning Davies, {\it Exploding a myth: ``Conventional Wisdom" or Scientific Truth,} Horwood Publishing Limited, 2007.

[87] Karl Popper, {\it Quantum Theory and the Shism in Physics,} Cambridge University Press (1982)..